Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

In 1956 Benjamin Bloom and some fellow researchers published a taxonomy of educational objectives that has been extremely influential in the research and practice of education ever since.

  • A taxonomy is a system of classification. Bloom and his colleagues categorized objectives from simple to complex, or from factual to conceptual.
  • These key elements are commonly known as Bloom’s taxonomy.

This taxonomy defines levels of objectives in 3 domains:

  1. Cognitive (knowledge based) – relating to intellectual capability i.e. knowledge or ‘think’
  2. Affective (emotive based) – relating to feelings, attitudes, values and behaviours
  3. Psychomotor (action based) – relating to physical coordination and performance of physical skills

The original Bloom’s Taxonomy contained six developmental categories: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

A revised version of Bloom’s taxonomy was published by Anderson et al. in 2001. Three most prominent changes are:

  • changing the names in the six categories from noun to verb forms
  • rearranging them as shown in the chart below
  • creating processes and levels of knowledge matrix

Bloom's taxonomy

Bloom’s taxonomyIt is hierarchical. Higher level learning is reliant on knowledge and skills attained at lower levels.

As per revised version, the 6 levels within the Cognitive domain are:

1. Remembering: To recall, recognise, or identify concepts
2. Understanding: To comprehend meaning, explain data in own words
3. Applying: Use or apply knowledge, in practice or real life situations
4. Analysing: Interpret elements, structure relationships between individual components
5. Evaluation: Assess effectiveness of whole concepts in relation to other variables
6. Creation: Display creative thinking, develop new concepts or approaches

The 5 levels within the Affective domain are:

1. Receiving: Open to experience or idea, willing to hear
2. Responding: Get involved in or participate actively
3. Valuing: Attach values and express personal opinions
4. Organising: Reconcile disparate elements or conflicts, develop value system
5. Internalising: Adopt belief system or philosophy

The 5 levels within the Psychomotor domain are:

1. Imitation: Copy the actions of another, to observe and replicate
2. Manipulation: Reproduce activity from instruction or memory
3. Precision: Demonstrate activity reliably, to a high quality, and independently
4. Articulation: Integrate and adapt expertise to fulfill a non-standard objective
5. Naturalisation: Automated, unconscious mastery of activity at a strategic level

In summary, Bloom’s Taxonomy is a universally effective classification strategy for educators, useful as a guide in creating educational / training content, impart learning with clear objectives, and assess learners on the learning outcomes.

Almost every CTET and State TET ( UPTET, HTET etc) question paper has questions from this topic.

Previous Year Questions:

Question #1
Following is a problem from textbook of Class III
“Which mathematical operation will be used to solve the following problem? A milkman
sold 1410 L of milk in 10 days. How many litres of milk did he sell in a day?” Which
competence of Bloom’s cognitive domain is referred in the above question?
[Mathematics] [CTET-2013-07]
  • Synthesis
  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • Analysis correct answer
Question #2 Which one of the following represents the domain ‘evaluating’ in the Bloom’s revised taxonomy?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-02]
  • Creating a graph or chart using the data
  • Judging the logical consistency of a solution correct answer
  • Evaluating the pertinence of the data provided
  • Formulating a new way for categorizing objects
Question #3 According to Bloom’s revised taxonomy, the cognitive objective that can be achieved through the following task

“Prepare a PowerPoint presentation on contribution of Indian mathematicians.” is

[Mathematics] [CTET-2014-02]
  • remembering
  • understanding
  • analyzing
  • creating correct answer
Question #4 Bloom’s taxonomy is a hierarchical organisation of ____ ,

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2013-07]
  • achievement goals
  • curricular declarations
  • reading skills
  • cognitive objectives correct answer
Question #5 Following is a problem from text-book of class VI:

“Express the following statement through linear expression : Neha has 7 more toffees than Megha. If Megha has x toffees, how many toffees does Neha have ?” Which competence of Bloom’s cognitive domain is referred in the above question?

[Mathematics] [CTET-2013-07]
  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension correct answer
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis