Important Questions on Theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, Vygotsky, Pavlov, Skinner & Gardner

Following theories of Child Development are very important for CTET and State TET exams.

  • Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development
  • Vygotsky’s theory of Socio-Cultural Development
  • Kohlberg’s theory of Moral Development
  • Pavlov’s Theory of Classical Conditioning
  • Skinner’s Theory of Operant Conditioning
  • Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Every year 5 to 6 questions are asked in both paper I and paper II. We are providing questions (80+) from previous year papers for quick revision.

#CTET #UPTET #OTET

Question / Answer – Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development

Question #1 According to Jean Piaget, which of the following is necessary for learning?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • Observing the behaviour of adults
  • Belief in immanent justice
  • Reinforcement by teachers and parents
  • Active exploration of the environment by the learner correct answer
Question #2 According to Jean Piaget, schema building occurs as a result of modifying new information to fit existing schemes and by modifying old schemes as per new information. These two processes are known
as:

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • assimilation and adaptation
  • equilibration and modification
  • assimilation and accommodation correct answer
  • accommodation and adaptation
Question #3 According to Piaget, children’s thinking differs in _________ from adults than in ________

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-02]
Options
  • amount; kind
  • size; correctness
  • kind; amount correct answer
  • size; type
Question #4 According to Piaget, a child between 2 to 7 yr is in the ………….. stage of cognitive development.

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2015-09]
Options
  • formal operational
  • concrete operational
  • sensorimotor
  • pre operational correct answer
Question #5 According to Piaget, at which of the following stages does a child begin to think logically
about abstract propositions?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2011-06]
Options
  • Sensori-motor stage (Birth – 02 years)
  • Pre-operational stage (02 – 07 years)
  • Concrete operational stage (07 – 11 years)
  • Formal operational stage (11 years and up) correct answer
Question #6 Ria does not agree with Rishabh about setting up a class picnic. She thinks that the rules can be revised to suit the majority . This kind of peer disagreement, according to Piaget, refers to

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-09]
Options
  • Heteronomous morality
  • Cognitive immaturity
  • Reaction
  • Morality of cooperation correct answer
Question #7 Which of the following statements is correct about Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • The sequence of the stages can vary according to the cultural context of children.
  • Piaget argues that instead of progressing through stages, cognitive development is continuous. correct answer
  • Piaget has proposed five distinct stages of cognitive development.
  • The stages are invariant which means that no stage can be skipped.
Question #8 The concept of ‘conservation’ as proposed by Jean Piaget means that:

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • taking the perspective of others into consideration is an important cognitive ability
  • it is important to protect wildlife and forests
  • certain physical properties remain the same even when outwards appearances change correct answer
  • one can arrive at the correct conclusion by systematically testing hypothesis
Question #9 Which of the following statements describes Piaget and Vygotsky’s views on language and thought correctly?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • Both view language as emerging from the child’s thought.
  • According to Vygotsky, thought emerges first and according to Piaget, language has a profoud effect on thought.
  • According to Piaget, thought emerges first and according to Vygotsky, language has a profound effect on thought. correct answer
  • Both view thought as emerging from the child’s language.
Question #10 According to Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development, the associated with

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2012-01]
Options
  • imitation, memory and mental representation correct answer
  • ability to solve problem
  • ability to interpret and
  • concerns about social issues
Question #11 According to Piaget’s cognitive theory of learning, the process by which the cognitive structure is modified is called

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2012-01]
Options
  • Accommodation
  • Assimilation correct answer
  • Schema
  • Perception
Question #12 The stage of cognitive development according to Piaget, in which a child displays ‘object permanence’ is

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2012-01]
Options
  • Formal operational stage
  • Sensorimotor stage
  • Pre-operational stage correct answer
  • Concrete operational stage
Question #13
Rashid is studying in class V. He can classify various types of triangles in different categories but has difficulty in understanding the abstract proof for the sum of three angles in a triangle to be always 180. According to Piaget Cognitive Theory, Rashid is
[Mathematics] [CTET-2013-07]
Options
  • Pre­operational stage
  • Concrete operational stage correct answer
  • Formal operational stage
  • Sensori motor stage
Question #14 According to Piaget theory, which one out of the following will not influence one’s cognitive development?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2015-02]
Options
  • Language
  • Social experiences correct answer
  • Maturation
  • Activity
Question #15 Which of the following figures correctly represents the development according to piaget’s developmental theory?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-02]
Options
  • correct answer
Question #16 Which of the following implications cannot be derived from piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-02]
Options
  • Sensitivity of children’s readiness to learn
  • Acceptance of individual differences
  • Discovery learning
  • Need of verbal teaching correct answer
Question #17 In the context of language development, which of the following areas was underestimated by Piaget?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-02]
Options
  • Heredity
  • Social interaction correct answer
  • Egocentric speech
  • Active construction by the child
Question #18 According to Jean Piaget’s theory

[Mathematics] [CTET-2014-02]
Options
  • introduction of linear equation and learning techniques of solving it are assimilation, and extension the concept to pair of linear equations may raise problem of accommodation correct answer
  • introduction of pair of linear equations and techniques of solving it are assimilation, and connecting it to basics of linear equation is accommodation
  • exposure to linear equation, techniques of solving it and pair of linear equations are assimilation
  • learning the concept of linear equation, pair of linear equations and quadratic equations is problem of accommodation
Question #19 According to Piaget, which one of the following factors plays an important role in influencing development?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-02]
Options
  • Reinforcement
  • Language
  • Experience with the physical world correct answer
  • Imitation
Question #20 In a constructivist classroom as envisioned by Piaget and Vygotsky, learning

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-02]
Options
  • is offering of reinforcement by the teacher
  • is constructed by the students themselves who play an active role
  • is dictated by the teacher and the students are passive recipients of the same
  • happens by pairing of stimulus and response correct answer
Question #21 Algebra is introduced in the middle classes. According to Piagets’ theory of cognitive development, it is appropriate to introduce algebra at this stage as

[Mathematics] [CTET-2013-07]
Options
  • the child is at sensorimotor stage and can understand with the help of lots of manipulatives
  • the child is at pre-operational stage and can understand abstract concepts
  • the child is at concrete-operational stage and he can understand and conceptualize concrete experiences by creating logical structure correct answer
  • the child is at formal operational stage and is fully mature to grasp the abstract concepts
Question #22 According to Piaget, during the first stage of development (birth to about 2 years age), a child learns best

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2011-06]
Options
  • by using the senses correct answer
  • by comprehending neutral words
  • by thinking in an abstract fashion
  • by applying newly acquired knowledge of language
Question #23 What term/phrase does Piaget use for ‘mental structures which are the building blocks of thinking’?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2015-09]
Options
  • Gene
  • Maturation blocks
  • Schemas correct answer
  • Zones of development
Question #24 According to Piaget, when the child is at formal operational stage, it is appropriate to introduce:

[Mathematics] [CTET-2015-09]
Options
  • Numbers
  • Geometry
  • Ratio and Proportion correct answer
  • Data handling
Question #25 According to piaget, the second stage of cognitive development is

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [UPTET-2017-10]
Options
  • Sensorimotor stage
  • Formal operations stage
  • Pre-operations stage correct answer
  • Concrete operations
Question #26 Which one is not included in Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [HTET-2015-11]
Options
  • Sensory motor stage
  • Pre-operational stage
  • Post-operational stage correct answer
  • Formal operational stage
Question #27 According to Piaget, during the first stage of development (from birth to 2 years of age) a child learns best

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [HTET-2015-11]
Options
  • By using senses correct answer
  • By thinking in an abstract way
  • By comprehending new words
  • By concrete thinking
Question #28 According to Piaget, the age range of the substage ‘mental representatio’, of the sensory motor stage is :

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [HTET-2017-12]
Options
  • Birth to 1 month
  • 4 to 8 months
  • 8 to 12 months
  • 18 months to 2 years correct answer
Question #29 Piaget is mainly known for studying

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [UPTET-2016-12]
Options
  • Language development
  • Sexual development
  • Cognitive development correct answer
  • Social development
Question #30 Match the two sets. Set – I indicate stages of cognitive development in Piaget’s model and Set – II indicates associated characteristics. Select the correct code to represent your answer.

Set-I Set-II
(a) Sensori-motor

(b) Pre-Operational

(c) Concrete Operational

(d) Formal Operational

(i) Reversible thinking

(ii) Object permanence

(iii) Egocentrism

(iv) Deductive thinking

(v) Repetitive tasks

(vi) Intense self awareness

Code:
(a) (b) (c) (d)

[Pedagogy, Educational Management and Policy] [KVS-PRT-2018-12]
Options
  • (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)
  • (v) (vi) (ii) (i)
  • (v) (ii) (iv) (vi) correct answer
  • (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
Question #31 According to Jean Piaget children develop abstract logic and reasoning skill during

[Pedagogy, Educational Management and Policy] []
Options
  • Sensorimotor stage
  • Preoperational stage
  • Formal operational stage correct answer
  • Concrete operational stage
Question #32 According to Jean Piaget children are no longer egocentric when entering

[Pedagogy, Educational Management and Policy] []
Options
  • Sensorimotor stage
  • Preoperational stage
  • Formal operational stage
  • Concrete operational stage correct answer
Question #33 According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development the Concrete operational stage starts at age

[Pedagogy, Educational Management and Policy] []
Options
  • 12 correct answer
  • 3
  • 5
  • 7
Answer Explanation The concrete operational stage is the third stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. This period spans the time of middle childhood—it begins around age 7 and continues until approximately age 11—and is characterized by the development of logical thought.

Read more: https://www.preptoz.com/blog/index.php/2017/11/19/four-major-stages-piagets-cognitive-development/

Question #34 According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development the Formal operational stage starts at age

[Pedagogy, Educational Management and Policy] []
Options
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7 correct answer
  • 8
Answer Explanation The formal operational stage is the fourth and final stage of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. It begins at approximately age 12 and lasts into adulthood. At this point in development, thinking becomes much more sophisticated and advanced

Read more: https://www.preptoz.com/blog/index.php/2017/11/19/four-major-stages-piagets-cognitive-development/

Question #35 What is the age range of “Sensory motor period” acording to Piaget?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [OTET-2018-12]
Options
  • 7 to 11 years
  • 4 to 7 years
  • 2 to 4 years
  • Birth to 1.5 years correct answer
Answer Explanation The sensorimotor period refers to the earliest stage (birth to 2 years) in Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. This stage is characterized as the period of a child’s life when learning occurs through a child’s sensory and motor interactions with the physical environment.

Read more: https://www.preptoz.com/blog/index.php/2017/11/19/four-major-stages-piagets-cognitive-development/

Question #36 Which one is not related to Piaget’s Cognitive Development?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [OTET-2018-12]
Options
  • Assimilation
  • Accommodation
  • Verification correct answer
  • Equilibration
Question #37 Which of the following stages in called as “Concrete Operational Stage” according to Piaget?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [OTET-2018-12]
Options
  • Infancy
  • Childhood
  • Late childhood correct answer
  • Adolescence
Answer Explanation
Piaget’s four stages
Stage Age Goal
Sensorimotor Birth to 18–24 months old Object permanence
Preoperational 2 to 7 years old Symbolic thought
Concrete operational 7 to 11 years old Operational thought
Formal operational Adolescence to adulthood Abstract concepts
Question #38 According to Piaget what is the average age limit of the child during concrete operational period of congnitive development ?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [OTET-2017-09]
Options
  • 2 to 7 years
  • 7 to 12 years correct answer
  • 12 to 1 7 years
  • 18 years and above

Question / Answer – Vygotsky’s theory of Socio-Cultural Development

Question #1 According to Lev Vygotsky, the primary cause of cognitive development is:

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • social interaction correct answer
  • adjustment of mental schemas
  • stimulus-response pairing
  • equilibration
Question #2 As a teacher, who firmly believes in social constructivist theory of Lev Vygotsky, which of the following methods would you prefer for assessing your students?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • Standardized tests
  • Fact based recall questions
  • Objective multiple choice type questions
  • Collaborative projects correct answer
Question #3 According to Vygotsky, children learn

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-02]
Options
  • when reinforcement is offered
  • by maturation
  • by imitation
  • by interacting with adults and peers correct answer
Question #4 Which one of the following statements about children would Vygotsky agree with?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2015-09]
Options
  • Children learn when they are offered lucrative rewards
  • Children’s thinking can be understood by conducting laboratory experiments on animals
  • Children are born evil and need to be controlled through punishment
  • Children learn through social interaction with peers and adults correct answer
Question #5 In Vygotsky’s theory , which aspect of development gets neglected?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-09]
Options
  • Social
  • Cultural
  • Biological correct answer
  • Linguistic
Question #6 According to Lev Vygotsky:

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • children learn language through a language acquisition device
  • interaction with adults and peers does not influence language development
  • language development changes the nature of human thought correct answer
  • culture plays a very small role in language development
Question #7 Which of the following statements describes Piaget and Vygotsky’s views on language and thought correctly?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • Both view language as emerging from the child’s thought.
  • According to Vygotsky, thought emerges first and according to Piaget, language has a profoud effect on thought.
  • According to Piaget, thought emerges first and according to Vygotsky, language has a profound effect on thought. correct answer
  • Both view thought as emerging from the child’s language.
Question #8 Vygotsky emphasized the significance of the role played by which of the following factors in the learning of children?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2012-01]
Options
  • Hereditary
  • Moral
  • Physical
  • Social correct answer
Question #9 According to socio-cultural theory of Vygotsky

[Language II – English] [CTET-2015-09]
Options
  • sel-directed speech is the lowest stage of the scaffolding
  • children can think in abstract terms if abstract material is provided at a lower age
  • children drink in different domain and do the take a complete perspective
  • culture helps in language development correct answer
Question #10 A teacher wishes to help her students to appreciate multiple views of a situation. She provides her students multiple opportunities to debate on this situation in different groups. According to Vygotsky’s perspective, her students will …….various views and develop multiple perspectives of the situation on their own

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2013-07]
Options
  • rationalize
  • internalize correct answer
  • construct
  • operationalize
Question #11 Which of the following is based on Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-02]
Options
  • Operant conditioning
  • Reciprocal teaching correct answer
  • Culture-neutral cognitive development
  • Insight learning
Question #12 According to Socio-cultural theory of Vygotsky

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-09]
Options
  • culture and language play a crucial role in development correct answer
  • the child thinks in different domains and does not take a complete perspective
  • children think in abstract terms if presented abstract material at a lower age
  • self-directed speech is the lowest stage of the scaffold
Question #13 The concept of ‘private speech’ of children as proposed by Vygotsky

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-02]
Options
  • shows that children are stupid and thus need guidance of adults
  • illustrates that children are egocentric correct answer
  • shows that children love themselves
  • illustrates that children use speech to guide their own actions
Question #14 According to Vygotsky, learning cannot be separated form

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-02]
Options
  • perception and attentional processes
  • its social context correct answer
  • reinforcement
  • a measurable change in behavior
Question #15 In a constructivist classroom as envisioned by Piaget and Vygotsky, learning

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-02]
Options
  • is offering of reinforcement by the teacher
  • is constructed by the students themselves who play an active role
  • is dictated by the teacher and the students are passive recipients of the same
  • happens by pairing of stimulus and response correct answer
Question #16 According to Vygotsky why do children speak to themselves?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2015-09]
Options
  • Children use their speech to attract the attention of adults to them
  • Children are very talkative by nature
  • Children are egocentric
  • Children use speech to guide their actions correct answer

Question / Answer – Kohlberg’s theory of Moral Development

Question #1 In the context of Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning, under which stage would the given typical response of a child fall? “Your parents will be proud of you if you are honest. So you should be honest.”

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • Social contract orientation
  • Good girl-good boy orientation correct answer
  • Law and order orientation
  • Punishment-obedience orientation
Question #2 Kohlberg has given

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-02]
Options
  • the stages of cognitive development
  • the stages of physical development
  • the stages of emotional development
  • the stages of moral development correct answer
Question #3 According to the pre-conventional level of Kohlberg’s theory, to which of the following would an individual turn when making a moral decision?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2015-09]
Options
  • Personal needs and desires
  • Individual values
  • Family expectations
  • Potential punishment involved correct answer
Question #4 Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning has been criticized on several counts. Which of the following statements is correct in the context of this criticism?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2016-09]
Options
  • Kohlberg has based his study primarily on a male sample. correct answer
  • Kohlberg has not given typical responses to each stage of moral reasoning.
  • Kohlberg has duplicated Piaget’s methods of arriving at his theoretical framework.
  • Kohlberg’s theory does not focus on children’s responses.
Question #5 According to Kohlberg, a teacher can instill moral values in children by

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2012-01]
Options
  • giving importance to religious teachings
  • laying clear rules of behavior
  • involving them in discussions on moral issues correct answer
  • giving strict instruction
Question #6 According to Kohlberg, the thinking process involved in judgments about questions of right and wrong is called

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2012-01]
Options
  • Moral reasoning correct answer
  • Moral realism
  • Moral dilemma
  • Morality co-operation
Question #7 In Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory, which level signifies the absence of morality in the true sense?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2015-02]
Options
  • Level III
  • Level IV
  • Level I correct answer
  • Level II
Question #8 A teacher says to her class, “As individual assignments are designed to help individual students learn more effectively, all students should complete assignments prescribed without any assistance.” She is referring to which of the following stages of Kohlberg’s moral development?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-02]
Options
  • Conventional stage 4 law and order correct answer
  • Post-conventional stage 5 social contract
  • Pre-conventional stage 1 punishment avoidance
  • Pre-conventional stage 2 individualism and exchange
Question #9 Which of the following is a characteristic of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-02]
Options
  • Variable sequence of stages
  • Stages are isolated responses and not general pattern
  • Universal sequences of stages across all cultures correct answer
  • Stages proceed in a non-hierarchic manner
Question #10 Karnail Singh does not pay income tax despite legal procedures and expenses. He thinks that he cannot support a corrupt government which spends millions of rupees in building unnecessary dams. He is probably in which state of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2013-07]
Options
  • Conventional
  • Post Conventional correct answer
  • Pre Conventional
  • Para Conventional
Question #11 According to Kohlberg. at which level, morality is externally controlled?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [UPTET-2016-02]
Options
  • Pre-conventional level correct answer
  • Conventional level
  • Post-conventional level
  • None of the above
Question #12 A child reasons- ‘You do this for me and I’ll do that for you.’ In which stage of Kohlberg’s moral reasoning would this child fall?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2015-09]
Options
  • The ‘good boy-good girl’ orientation correct answer
  • The social-contract orientation
  • The instrumental purpose orientation
  • The punishment and obedience orientation
Question #13 According to Kohlberg the level in which child’s morality is controlled by fear of punishment is called

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [HTET-2015-11]
Options
  • Pre-moral stage
  • Conventional moral level correct answer
  • Self-accepted moral stage
  • Morality level
Question #14 Kohlberg Theory of development is concerned with

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [UPTET-2016-12]
Options
  • Language Development correct answer
  • Social Development
  • Moral Development
  • Physical Development

 

Question / Answer – Pavlov’s Theory of Classical Conditioning

Question #1 Pavlov did experiments on –

[Child Development and Pedagogy] []
Options
  • Dog
  • Cat
  • Rat
  • Monkey correct answer
Question #2 In learning. Pavlov’s conditioning theory. he experimented on

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [UPTET-2016-12]
Options
  • cat
  • Dog correct answer
  • Monkey
  • rat
Question #3 Where did Pavlov experiment his conditioning learning theory ?

[Child Development and Pedagogy] [OTET-2017-09]
Options
  • Lelingrad correct answer
  • Johannesburg
  • Cape town
  • Mexico

 

Question / Answer – Skinner’s Theory of Operant Conditioning

Question #1 B. F. Skinner claimed that language is learnt through

[Language I – English] [CTET-2015-02]
Options
  • reinforcement and engagement
  • drill and practice correct answer
  • immersion and employment
  • repetition and approximation
Question #2 Skinner’s experiment was conducted upon ___ and other animals

[Child Development and Pedagogy] []
Options
  • Pigeons correct answer
  • Fishes
  • Trees
  • None of these
Question #3 The apparatus which was specially designed for Skinner’s experiment was known as Skinner’s

[Child Development and Pedagogy] []
Options
  • Platform
  • Pigeon
  • Rods
  • Box correct answer
Question #4 Skinner in his study of operant conditioning experimented with

[Child Development and Pedagogy] []
Options
  • Rabbits
  • Dogs
  • Rats
  • Pigeons correct answer
Question #5 Skinner’s box is used for

[Child Development and Pedagogy] []
Options
  • Motor learning
  • Verbal learning
  • Problem solving
  • Incidental learning correct answer