Important Questions on Theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, Vygotsky, Pavlov, Skinner & Gardner

Following theories of Child Development are very important for CTET and State TET exams.

  • Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development
  • Vygotsky’s theory of Socio-Cultural Development
  • Kohlberg’s theory of Moral Development
  • Pavlov’s Theory of Classical Conditioning
  • Skinner’s Theory of Operant Conditioning
  • Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Every year 5 to 6 questions are asked in both paper I and paper II. We are providing questions (80+) from previous year papers for quick revision.

#CTET #UPTET #OTET

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Maths – Parallel lines and properties relating to parallel lines

Properties of Parallel Lines –

  • The basic characteristic of Parallel Lines is they never meet at any point
  • The distance between two Parallel Lines would always be same at every point
  • Any third line will cut Parallel Lines at same angles
  • Any straight line cutting Parallel Lines is called Transversal
  • Two Transversals cutting Parallel lines at same angle would also be Parallel in themselves
  • Any line Parallel to one Parallel Line would be Parallel to all Parallel Lines

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Themes in EVS as per NCF

The National Curriculum Committee had recommended in the 1975 policy document “The Curriculum for the Ten-year School: A Framework”, that a single subject ‘Environmental Studies’ be taught at the primary stage. It had proposed that in the first two years (Class I-II) Environmental Studies will look at both the natural and the social environment, while in Classes III-V there would be separate portions for social studies and general science termed as EVS Part I and Part II.

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Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development

Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is a stage-based model of moral maturity developed by Lawrence Kohlberg in 1958. The theory offers three levels of moral development, each of which contains two stages. Kohlberg asserts that moral development is neither the result of a genetic blueprint nor the result of conscious teaching of morality. Rather, it is a process of maturing that arises from thinking about moral issues. Read More

Lev Vygotsky’s theory of Socio Cultural Development

Vygotsky was called “The Mozart of Psychology“. He was born in 1896- same year as Piaget – in the small Russian town of Orsha.

The sociocultural theory:

  • Did NOT focus on the individual child but on the child as a product of social interaction, especially with adults (parents, teachers).
  • Focus on DYADIC INTERACTIONS (e.g., child being taught by a parent how to perform some culturally specific action), rather than child by himself.
  • Social world mediates children’s cognitive development. Cognitive development occurs as child’s thinking is molded by society in the form of parents, teachers, and peers. This leads to peer tutoring as a strategy in classrooms.
  • People’s thinking differs dramatically between cultures because different cultures stress different things.

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CTET and State TETs – People in Environment

  1. Charles Darwin wrote the ‘Origin of Species’
  2. Ralph Emerson (1840) spoke of the dangers of commerce to our environment.
  3. John Muir is remembered as having saved the great ancient sequoia trees in California’s forests.
  4. In the 1960s Rachel Carson published several articles that caused immediate worldwide concern on the effects of pesticides on nature and mankind. She wrote a well known book called ‘Silent Spring’
  5. EO Wilson is an entomologist who envisioned that biological diversity was a key to human survival on earth. He wrote ‘Diversity of Life’ in 1993.
  6. Salim Ali’s name is synonymous with ornithology in India and with the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS).
  7. Indira Gandhi as PM has played a highly significant role in the preservation of India’s wildlife. The Wildlife Protection Act was formulated during her regime.
  8. S P Godrej was one of India’s greatest supporters of wildlife conservation and nature awareness programs.
  9. M S Swaminathan is one of India’s foremost agricultural scientists and has also been concerned with various aspects of biodiversity conservation.
  10. Anil Agarwal was a journalist who wrote the first report on the ‘State of India’s Environment’ in 1982.
  11. Medha Patkar is known as one of India’s champions who has supported the cause of downtrodden tribal people whose environment is being affected by the dams on the Narmada river.
  12. Sunderlal Bahugna – Chipko Movement.
  13. Madhav Gadgil is a well known ecologist in India.
  14. M C Mehta – India’s most famous environmental lawyer.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

In 1956 Benjamin Bloom and some fellow researchers published a taxonomy of educational objectives that has been extremely influential in the research and practice of education ever since.

  • A taxonomy is a system of classification. Bloom and his colleagues categorized objectives from simple to complex, or from factual to conceptual.
  • These key elements are commonly known as Bloom’s taxonomy.

This taxonomy defines levels of objectives in 3 domains:

  1. Cognitive (knowledge based) – relating to intellectual capability i.e. knowledge or ‘think’
  2. Affective (emotive based) – relating to feelings, attitudes, values and behaviours
  3. Psychomotor (action based) – relating to physical coordination and performance of physical skills

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