SCERT, NCERT, NCTE, UGC and UNESCO and their functions
towards teacher education at state, national and international level.
STATE LEVEL :
To enhance quality of education and quality of educational institutions, to update educational methodology and to offer publicity to educational innovations by conducting various types of educational research every state establishes some institutes, council and associations. In this unit, we will discuss the role and functions of the following state agencies :
- State Institute of Education (SIE)
- State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT)
- State Board of Teacher Education (SBTE)
State Institute of Education (SIE) :
Training, preparation of teaching aids and evaluation needs continuity to achieve quality education. Considering this aspect, Maharashtra state has established ―State Institute of Education‖ (SIE). Initially, SIE looked after primary education only. Later on, its scope is widened to pre-primary, secondary and higher secondary education. In 1984, it secured constitutional status like NCERT and is renamed as ―Maharashtra State Council of Education Research and Training (MSCERT).‖
State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) :
The 1986 National Policy on Education, NPE, recommended the creation of State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) in each State as a measure of decentralization of functions of quality education, research and training.
It is a nodal agency recognized by the National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE) for admission, curriculum construction, course conduct, guidance, examination and certification of pre-service training programme in the area of pre-primary teacher education and elementary education.
State Board of Teacher Education (SBTE) :
Kothari Commission for the first time in 1966 recommended for establishing SBTE, whose main function was to develop teacher education in the state to be administered by the state board. State boards were established in M.P in 1967, and Maharashtra, Jammu and Kashmir and Tamil Nadu in 1973. Ministry of education forced states to have SBTE suggestions NCERT such boards almost all states established.
- Determine the standards of TE Institutions.
- Modifying and improving the curriculum, text books and the system of TE of the state.
- Developing the criterion for the recognition of the TE institutions.
- Organizing the guidance facility of TE institutions.
- Developing the criteria for admission in TE and evaluating the teacher efficiency of pupil teachers.
- Preparing the plan for the qualitative and quantitative development of teacher education.
- Providing guidance to the Universities and State institutes for improving and modifying curriculum, textbooks and examination system of teacher-education.
- Determining the educational and physical conditions of the teacher education institutions for affiliations.
- Developing the sense of cooperation among university departments and other training institutions
- Providing financial assistance – different facilities for TE at different levels.
- Provide suggestions for the development of state teacher-educators.
NATIONAL LEVEL :
University Grants Commission (UGC) :
Established on 28th December, 1953, at New Delhi. UGC was given autonomy by govt. of India in 1956.
- It provides financial assistance to universities and colleges to meet their requirement.
- It extends the financial aid for the development of Universities and maintenance.
- It provides a guide-line to Center and State Govt. for giving grant to a University.
- It provides the grants for five years to establish as new University in the state.
- It provides the grants for five years to start new department or any academic programme in the University but now state concurrence is essential.
- It encourages higher level research work and teaching activities by providing financial assistance.
- It provides the grants for higher education and new programmes in the Universities and colleges.
- It provides the fellowship for teachers and project work for University and college teachers.
National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE) :
Kothari commission Report (1964-66) criticized Teacher Education Programme being conventional, rigid and away from reality. Therefore it expressed the need of establishing National council of Teacher Education in order to improve the standard of Teacher Education. In September 1972, Central Advisory Board in Education accepted the said proposal which was supported by fifth National plan. Thereafter by law, Indian Education Ministry established NCTE on 21st May 1973. NCTE has got independent constitutional status since 1993.
- To work especially towards planned and coordinated development of teacher-education.
- To improve the standard and functioning of teacher-educators.
According to the Act 1993, NCTE performs the following functions :
- Undertake survey and studies relating to various aspects of teacher-education and publish the results.
- Making recommendations to the center and State government Universities, the U.G.C and other institutions in the preparation of plans and programmme‘s in the field of teacher education.
- Coordinating and monitoring teacher education and its development in the country.
- Preparing a guideline with regard to minimum qualifications for the candidates to be employed as teacher- educators at different levels.
- Developing norms for any specified category of courses or training in teacher-education, including minimum eligibility criterion for admission.
- Preparing a guideline and specified requirements for starting new courses and programmes under teacher education.
- Developing a guideline for general teacher-education programme.
- To advise central government on matters like teacher – education (in building pre-service / in-service training), evaluation of the curricula for teacher — education and periodical review with respect to revision of curricula.
- To advise state governments on any matter of their concern. To review the progress of plan of teacher- education, submitted by central / state governments.
- To advise the government on ensuring adequate standards in teacher – education.
- To give approval to teacher – education institutions.
- To lay down norms for maintaining standards of teachers – education.
- Promoting innovations and research studies and organize them periodically or annually.
- Supervising the teacher education programmes and providing financial assistance.
- Enforcing accountability of teacher development programmes in the country.
- Preparing a programme for in-service teacher education for orienting teachers for latest development.
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) : Ministry of Education of Indian Government established NCERT in 1961. NCERT is an autonomous – organization, working as an academic wing of the Ministry of Education. It assists the said ministry in the formulation and implementation of its policies and programmes in the field of Education. It is expected to encourage student teachers and teacher educators to conduct educational research. In order to fulfill these main objectives, it has established National Institute of Education (NIE) at Delhi and 4 regional colleges of education at Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar and Mysore. It also works in collaboration with the departments in the states, the universities and institutes, following objectives of school education. It also maintains close-contact with similar national and international 103 institutions throughout the world. It communicates results of its researches to a common man by publishing books and journals.
Major function of NCERT are as under/ Role of NCERT :
- To monitor the administration of NIE /Regional colleges of Education.
- To undertake aid, promote and co-ordinate research in all branches of education for improving school-education.
- To organize pre-service and in-service education programmes for teachers
- To prepare and publish study material for students and related teacher‘s handbooks.
- To search talented students for the award of scholarship in science, Technology and social sciences.
- To undertake functions assigned by the Ministry of education (Now HRD) for improving school –education
INTERNATIONAL LEVEL :
UNESCO : At no time in human history was the welfare of nations so closely linked to the quality and outreach of their higher education systems and institutions. (World Conference on Higher Education Partners, June 2003).
As the only United Nations agency with a mandate in higher education, UNESCO facilitates the development of evidence-based policies in response to new trends and developments in this field emphasizing its role in achieving the Millennium Development Goals and particularly poverty eradication.
The Organization fosters innovation to meet education and workforce needs and examines ways of increasing higher education opportunities for young people from vulnerable and disadvantaged groups.
It deals with cross-border higher education and quality assurance, with a special focus on mobility and recognition of qualifications, and provides tools to protect students and other stakeholders from low-quality provision of higher education. UNESCO promotes policy dialogue and contributes to enhancing quality education, strengthening research capacities in higher education institutions, and knowledge sharing across borders.