Achievement test is quite useful in measuring the learning acquisition by particular student in different subjects. Based upon the nature of learning outcome and content measured, quality of test item, procedure of administering and scoring and interpretation the teacher- made tests are prepared.
According to the modes of response, three types of test items such as oral, written and performance based (practical works) can be developed and used. The classroom teacher while preparing the teacher made tests should use all types of items.
Unit test is basically a teacher made test which is formative in nature. The unit test is informally conducted by the teacher. It provides credible feedback to the teacher regarding his/her teaching methodologies as well as to the students regarding his/her learning progress and difficulties. Further it is used for remediation and enrichment purposes.
The test items are classified under two broad headings-essay type and objective type. The essay types of items are extended response type and restricted response type.
Different types of objective types of items like short answer type, multiple choice type, matching type, alternate response type etc. can be used by the teacher.
Open ended items are quite useful to discourage cramming and enabling the student for divergent thinking.
Teacher Made Tests:
While teaching in a class, very often teachers have to use tests to assess levels of learning of each and every students of their class. These tests are essential for making the assessment more continuous and comprehensive.
Some important functions of the teacher-made test are:
- To reflect on the day–to-day teaching-learning activities of the school.
- To develop more efficient learning-teaching strategies.
- To know the ability of individual student. By knowing the abilities of the students, the teacher may be at an advantaged position to form different ability groups.
- To diagnose the students’ strengths and weaknesses, and this helps the teacher to plan for compensatory (remedial) and enrichment programmes.
QUALITATATIVE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES:
Assessment/evaluation of learning is based on both the qualitative and quantitative description of a child’s performance. To know the status of the quality and quantity aspect of the child’s performance the classroom teacher has to use various types of tools and strategies.
- Systematically observing students in natural setting (also in simulated setting) is a useful technique for gathering data about student’s performance in different curricular and co-curricular activities and about their affective behaviour.
- Student’s progress and behaviour in areas like speaking, handwriting, singing, dancing, dramatization, punctuality, effective use of time, cordial relationship, giving respect to the elders cannot be evaluated through paper-pencil tests. These can be assessed through observation techniques.
- Check list is a tool which helps the teacher to record the student’s performance in specific activities.
- Check list usually contain list of behaviours, characteristics that are either present or absent
- A rating scale is an instrument that requires the rather to assign the rated object that has numerals assigned to them
- Rating scale resemble checklist, but it is used when finer descriptions are needed. In check list what do you do? You merely indicate the presence or absence of a characteristic through a checklist. But in a rating scale you have to indicate the status or level of quality of what is being rated.
- A Questionnaire is useful in providing adequate, accurate, unbiased data as required. On the basis of the objective and purposes of information, the items (questions) for a questionnaire are developed.
- Interview is an effective technique to collect information directly by face to face personal conversation with some specific purpose.
- When we need to find the reason for a particular behaviour in the student, asking him/her personally is the best way to elicit. The confidence, which the student carry of his /her teacher, will help the teacher in getting correct information.
- A student portfolio is a collection of pieces of student’s work selected to serve a particular purpose
- Portfolios can serve as an effective tool in fostering skills in self- evaluation which leads to independent thinking.
- This creates an opportunity for further learning as well as involvement of parents in the school activities
- Projects are quite useful in establishing a link between the knowledge inside the textbook and the life of the students.
- According to Ballard, “A project is a bit of real life that has been imparted into the school”.
- The projects can be undertaken either by individual student or by students in small groups.
- Projects can act as an effective technique for evaluation of student’s behaviour in both scholastic and co-scholastic areas. It helps the teacher to get information about the student’s ability in applying the knowledge in different situations.
- Case studies are in-depth investigation of an individual, a family, a school, or a group of children.
- Case studies can be vertical (collecting information about the child over a long period of time) or may be horizontal or cross sectional (Collecting information of recent period from all possible sources about the child).