In 1956 Benjamin Bloom and some fellow researchers published a taxonomy of educational objectives that has been extremely influential in the research and practice of education ever since.

  • taxonomy is a system of classification. Bloom and his colleagues categorized objectives from simple to complex, or from factual to conceptual.
  • These key elements are commonly known as Bloom’s taxonomy.

This taxonomy defines levels of objectives in 3 domains:

  1. Cognitive (knowledge based) – relating to intellectual capability i.e. knowledge or ‘think’
  2. Affective (emotive based) – relating to feelings, attitudes, values and behaviours
  3. Psychomotor (action based) – relating to physical coordination and performance of physical skills

The original Bloom’s Taxonomy contained six developmental categories: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

A revised version of Bloom’s taxonomy was published by Anderson et al. in 2001. Three most prominent changes are:

  • changing the names in the six categories from noun to verb forms
  • rearranging them as shown in the chart below
  • creating processes and levels of knowledge matrix

Bloom’s taxonomyIt is hierarchical. Higher level learning is reliant on knowledge and skills attained at lower levels.

As per revised version, the 6 levels within the Cognitive domain are:

1. Remembering: To recall, recognise, or identify concepts
2. Understanding: To comprehend meaning, explain data in own words
3. Applying: Use or apply knowledge, in practice or real life situations
4. Analysing: Interpret elements, structure relationships between individual components
5. Evaluation: Assess effectiveness of whole concepts in relation to other variables
6. Creation: Display creative thinking, develop new concepts or approaches

The 5 levels within the Affective domain are:

1. Receiving: Open to experience or idea, willing to hear
2. Responding: Get involved in or participate actively
3. Valuing: Attach values and express personal opinions
4. Organising: Reconcile disparate elements or conflicts, develop value system
5. Internalising: Adopt belief system or philosophy

The 5 levels within the Psychomotor domain are:

1. Imitation: Copy the actions of another, to observe and replicate
2. Manipulation: Reproduce activity from instruction or memory
3. Precision: Demonstrate activity reliably, to a high quality, and independently
4. Articulation: Integrate and adapt expertise to fulfill a non-standard objective
5. Naturalisation: Automated, unconscious mastery of activity at a strategic level

In summary, Bloom’s Taxonomy is a universally effective classification strategy for educators, useful as a guide in creating educational / training content, impart learning with clear objectives, and assess learners on the learning outcomes.

Almost every CTET and State TET ( UPTET, HTET etc) question paper has questions from this topic.

Previous Year Questions:

Question #1Following is a problem from textbook of Class III“Which mathematical operation will be used to solve the following problem? A milkmansold 1410 L of milk in 10 days. How many litres of milk did he sell in a day?” Whichcompetence of Bloom’s cognitive domain is referred in the above question?
[Mathematics] [CTET-2013-07]
OptionsA) Synthesis
B) Knowledge
C) Comprehension
D) Analysis correct answer
Question #2Which one of the following represents the domain ‘evaluating’ in the Bloom’s revised taxonomy?
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2014-02]
OptionsA) Creating a graph or chart using the data
B) Judging the logical consistency of a solution correct answer
C) Evaluating the pertinence of the data provided
D) Formulating a new way for categorizing objects
Question #3According to Bloom’s revised taxonomy, the cognitive objective that can be achieved through the following task“Prepare a PowerPoint presentation on contribution of Indian mathematicians.” is
[Mathematics] [CTET-2014-02]
OptionsA) remembering
B) understanding
C) analyzing
D) creating correct answer
Question #4Bloom’s taxonomy is a hierarchical organisation of ____ ,
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2013-07]
OptionsA) achievement goals
B) curricular declarations
C) reading skills
D) cognitive objectives correct answer
Question #5Following is a problem from text-book of class VI:“Express the following statement through linear expression : Neha has 7 more toffees than Megha. If Megha has x toffees, how many toffees does Neha have ?” Which competence of Bloom’s cognitive domain is referred in the above question?
[Mathematics] [CTET-2013-07]
OptionsA) Knowledge
B) Comprehension correct answer
C) Analysis
D) Synthesis

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