What is Networking and Communication?
Data communications refers to the transmission of this digital data between two or more computers and a computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data. The physical connection between networked computing devices is established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet.
What are the types of Computer Networks?
In computer networks, the data is passed in the form of packets. The devices that transmit or receive this data, such as a phone or a computer, are referred to as nodes. There are three main types of networks:
1. Local Area Network (LAN): It is usually a small network that is restricted to a small geographic area. A computer network available only to the residents of a building can be called a LAN.
2. Wide Area Network (WAN): As the name implies, these networks cover a broad range of geographic area. WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together so that users and computers can communicate with computers in other regions. An example of a WAN is the much-used and loved, Internet.
3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): MAN is a network that connects the users with computer resources in a geographic area that is larger than LAN but not quite as large as WAN.
What are the basic components of Computer Networks?
Computer networks share common devices, functions, and features including servers, clients, transmission media, shared data, shared printers and other hardware and software resources, network interface card(NIC), local operating system(LOS), and the network operating system (NOS).
|Server||Servers are computers that hold shared files, programs, and the network operating system. Servers provide access to network resources to all the users of the network.|
|Clients||Clients are computers that access and use the network and shared network resources. Client computers are basically the customers(users) of the network, as they request and receive services from the servers.|
|Transmission Media||Transmission media are the facilities used to interconnect computers in a network, such as twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, and optical fiber cable.|
|Network Interface Card||Each computer in a network has a special expansion card called a network interface card (NIC). The NIC prepares(formats) and sends data, receives data, and controls data flow between the computer and the network|
|Hub||Hub is a device that splits a network connection into multiple computers. It is like a distribution center.|
|Switch||Switch is a telecommunication device grouped as one of computer network components. Switch is like a Hub but built in with advanced features. It uses physical device addresses in each incoming messages so that it can deliver the message to the right destination or port.|
|Router||When we talk about computer network components, the other device that used to connect a LAN with an internet connection is called Router.|
|LAN Cable||A local area Network cable is also known as data cable or Ethernet cable which is a wired cable used to connect a device to the internet or to other devices like computer, printers, etc.|
|Network Operating System||The network operating system is a program that runs on computers and servers that allows the computers to communicate over the network.|