NoteThis article covers following important topics of “construct of Intelligence” for CTET, State TETs and other teaching recruitment exams.

Concept of Intelligence and Its Nature & Functions

Theories of Intelligence

Measurement of Intelligence & Types of Intelligence Test

Concept of Intelligence Quotient

Concept of Intelligence Quotient

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a number indicating your inherent ability to learn instead of simply the knowledge you already have. If you have a high IQ, it means that you have the intelligence required to do well in school because you have the ability or potential to succeed. It was originally developed by French psychologist Alfred Binet. The abbreviation “IQ” comes from the German term Intelligenz-Quotient, originally coined by psychologist William Stern.

History

  • In 1905, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, made the first successful attempt to formally measure intelligence , the Binet-Simon scale.
  • German psychologist William Stern formulated the basic definition of IQ in 1912 when he defined intelligence quotient as a ratio of an estimated “mental age” and “actual chronological age”.
  • Stanford University psychologist Lewis Terman took Binet’s original test and standardized it using a sample of American participants. This adapted test, first published in 1916, was called the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test

The Stanford-Binet intelligence test used a single number, known as the intelligence quotient (or IQ), to represent an individual’s score on the test.

The IQ score was calculated by dividing the test taker's mental age by his or her chronological age and then multiplying this number by 100.

I.Q. = (Mental Age / Chronological Age) * 100

For example, a child with a mental age of 13 and a chronological age of 10 would have an IQ of 130 (13/10 x 100).

Mental Age: Binet gave the concept of Mental age. Mental age is your cognitive abilities relative to what others can do of different ages. In other words, if you’re capable of doing what an average 22 year old can do, then your mental age is 22. If you can do what an average 8 year old can do, but not anything more advanced than that, then your mental age is only 8.

Binet did research using a bunch of kids at each age to directly measure their cognitive abilities.

Chronological Age: Chronological age is nothing but the actual calendar age of the child.

Classification of I.Q.

IQ RangeDescriptive LabelPer cent of the Population
Above 130Very Superior2.2
120 – 130Superior6.7
110 – 119High Average16.1
90 – 109Average50.0
80 – 89Low Average16.1
70 – 79Borderline6.7
Below 70Intellectually Disabled2.2

See, if you can answer below questions after reading this article:

Question The concept of Intelligence Quotient or IQ was developed by
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [CTET-2018-12]
OptionsA) Galton
B) Binet
C) Stern
D) Terman
B) Binet
Question The concept of Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) was at first used by –
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [UTET-2018-12]
Options A) Skinner
B) Terman
C) Binet
d) Spearmen
B) Terman
Question Eight years old Sudhir has mental age of ten, what is his I.Q.?
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [UPTET-2016-12]
Options A) 80
B) 100
C) 110
D) 125
D) 125
QuestionIf the I.Q. of a person is 150 and M.A. 30, then what is the value of C.A. ?
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [OTET-2017-09]
Options A) 05
B) 15
C) 20
D) 25
C) 20
IQ = (MA/CA) * 100
150 = (30/CA) * 100
CA = (30 * 100) / 150 = 20
Question The mental age of a 10 years old learner is 10 years. To what class the learner belongs ?
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [OTET-2015-09]
Options A) Less intelligent
B) Average intelligent
C) High intelligent
d) Very low intelligent
B) Average intelligent
Question Who gave the concept of mental age?
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [UPTET-2016-12]
Options A) Binet-Simon
B) Stern
C) Terman
D) Cyril Burt
A) Binet-Simon
Question If the mental age is less than the chronological age of an individual, then to what category does he belong ?
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [OTET-2017-09]
Options A) Below average intelligence
B) Exceptional intelligence
C) High intelligence
D) Superior intelligence
A) Below average intelligence

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