Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations. Educational management is centrally concerned with the purpose or aims of education. These purposes or goals provide the crucial sense of direction to underpin the management of educational institutions
Concept of Educational Management
Educational Management is a goal oriented activity. It involves group efforts and an organized work and performance towards the attainment of certain pre-determined goals in an educational institution.
DEFINITION OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT
1. Paul Monroe: (1913), states: “School management, as a body of educational doctrine, comprises a number of principles and precepts relating primarily to the technique of classroom procedure, and derived largely from the practice of successful teachers.
2. G.Terry Page and J.B.Thomas has written in International Dictionary of Education (1978): They say that Educational Management is the “Theory and practice of the organization and administration of existing establishments and systems”.
Need/Importance of Educational Management
- Social Change– the system of education is expected to provide society with human resources with specialized knowledge, attitudes, work ethics and values social moral-political values, expertise, and skills.
- To create congenial environment at an institutional level – for the attainment of the aims and objectives of the educational system in particular and those of the country in general and knowledge of relevant management theories, principles, concepts, techniques, skills and strategies and their application to educational systems is necessary for its effective and efficient function and outputs.
- Need to make the system of education is more proactive rather than reactive by using applying principles and techniques of management science.
Scope of Educational Management
The scope of educational management today is as vast as that of education itself. Any activity conducive to the, achievement of educational goal, is a part of educational management. Such activities could be at the school level, at the college level, at the university level or at the control level. Anything done to improve the quality of education at any stage may be ranging from the supply of material, human and financial resources to the highest cultural or academic needs-comes under the scope of educational management.
Types of Educational Management
Democratic educational management:
Now in the modern era democracy is unanimously regarded and accepted “as the way of life.” This is not only applicable in case of a particular nation but also for the entire globe/world. This very statement implies that in every aspect of development the democratic principles, values and ideas must be adhered or accepted. Accordingly in the field of management it must be accepted and implemented.
In this management teachers get proper scope for planning, administering, organizing, directing, coordinating, supervising, controlling and evaluating the assignments entrusted upon them. However like democracy in democratic educational management the following principles are highly stressed.
The principles of democratic educational management are:
a. Principle of sharing responsibility: In the field of democratic educational management everybody who is more or less involved in the process should take the responsibility to share in the work.
b. Principle of Equality: As equality is the basic hallmark of democracy. It should be treated and accepted in the field of democratic educational management. So all the personnel who are involved in the process should get equal facilities, rights and opportunities in doing their duty.
c. Principle of Freedom: In the field of democratic educational management every person should be given freedom to do their duty in their own jurisdiction. This will lead to make the educational management of every educational programme successful in democratic perspective.
d. Principle of Co-operation: In order to make educational management of any educational programme a successful one a greater cooperation should be ensured among different persons involved in the field of educational management.
Autocratic Educational Management
In Autocratic management the rights are absolute and supreme and educational management is a state of monopoly. In this type of educational management every aspect of education is controlled by one. And educational administration becomes centralized being dominated by bureaucracy, which controls through strict administration of laws, rules and regulations.
Centralized Educational Management
This type of educational management refers to the centralization of the power and responsibility of educational administration, supervision and control which results in educational management on one hand and division and distribution of powers and responsibilities of educational administration, supervision and control that results in educational management.
In the centralized educational management all sorts of powers, responsibilities in relation to educational management are vested in one hand.
Decentralized Educational Management
Decentralized educational management is the accepted type of educational management in the present modern educational system. The cause is that divisions and distribution of powers, responsibilities and duties of any type can make every programme a successful one. In the decentralized educational management the powers, responsibilities are distributed and decentralized from the Director Higher Education to the peon of a college in which everybody involved in the field of higher education feels seriously the responsibility of educational management.
Command and Control Management:
A command and control approach to leadership is authoritative in nature and uses a top-down approach, which fits well in bureaucratic organizations in which privilege and power are vested in senior management.
|Question||Which is not a factor of democratic management ?|
|Answers||A) Co-operation |
|Question||Which of the following is not a component of educational management ?|
|Answers||A) Educational guidance |
B) Educational planning
C) Educational administration
D) Educational supervision
A) Educational guidance