Each English word can be categorized into one part of speech. Therefore, understanding parts of speech is one of the key steps to learning grammar.
Here are different parts of speech.
|Part of Speech||Definition||Examples|
|Noun||a word that describes a person, place or thing||person: man, woman, teacher, Rahul, Seema|
place: home, office, town, countryside, India
thing: table, car, banana, money, music, dog, monkey
|Pronoun||a word that can function as a noun phrase||Common pronouns include I, me, mine, she, he, it, we, and us.|
|Verb||defined as words that show action or state of being||drink, look, jump, swim, fall, eat|
|Adjective||a word naming an attribute of a noun||blue, quick, and aggressive are adjectives because they can describe things—a blueShirt, the quick fox, an aggressive person.|
|Adverb||a word or phrase that modifies or qualifies an adjective, verb||modifies (describes) a verb (he sings loudly), an adjective (very tall), another adverb (ended too quickly), or even a whole sentence (Fortunately, I had brought an umbrella)|
|Article||they precede nouns in a sentence|| a, an, the |
|Preposition||used with noun/pronoun to create a phrase that modifies other parts of speech||preposition is the word “with” in the following; “I’m going with her.”|
|Conjunction||joins to parts of a sentence||An example of conjunction is the word “and.”|
|Interjection||words that illustrate an emotional state||Oh, Wow, Hurrah, Alas, Ouch, Oops, Aha, Yahoo, Eww, e.t.c|
There are several different types of English nouns:
Common Nouns and Proper Nouns:
- Words for people, places and things are called common nouns.
- The names of particular people, places and things are proper nouns. They always begin with a capital letter.
Nouns can be singular or plural.
- When you are talking about just one thing or person, use a singular noun. For example: a tent, a park etc.
- The article an is used before nouns that begin with the vowels a, e, i, o and u.
- Use a plural noun when you are talking about two or more people, places or things.
- Add s to make most nouns plural. Nouns that end in s, ss, ch, sh or x, are made plural by adding es.
- Most nouns that end in y are made plural by changing the y to i and adding es.
- Nouns that have a vowel before the y are made plural by simply adding s at the end. For example: keys, monkeys.
- Many nouns that end in f are made plural by changing the f to v and adding es. For example: half -> halves, leaf -> leaves
- Some nouns change spelling from the singular form to the plural. For example: man -> men, child -> children, foot -> feet, tooth -> teeth
- The plural form of some nouns is the same as the singular form. For example: sheep, deer, fish, aircraft
- A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a common noun or a proper noun. There are different kinds of pronouns.
- The words I, you, he, she, it, we and they are called personal pronouns. They take the place of nouns and are used as the subject of the verb in a sentence.
- The words myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves are called reflexive pronouns.
- The words who, whom, whose, what and which are called interrogative pronouns. These pronouns are used to ask questions.
- The words this, these, that and those are called demonstrative pronouns. They are showing words.
- Most verbs are action words. They tell you what people, animals or things are doing.
- When you use a verb, you have to say who or what is doing the action. This ‘who or what’ is the subject of the verb. The subject and the verb match each other.
- An adjective is a describing word. It tells you more about a noun. An adjective usually appears before the noun it describes. Sometimes, though, the adjective appears after the noun, later in the sentence.
- Adjectives have different endings. Some adjectives end in -ful or -less.
- An adverb is a word that describes a verb. It tells you about an action, or the way something is done. A lot of adverbs end in -ly. Like “It is raining heavily.”
- Some adverbs describe the way something is done. They are called adverbs of manner. Like “The parcel arrived safely.”
- Some adverbs describe when something happens. They are called adverbs of time. Like “She will finish it tomorrow.”
- Some adverbs tell you where something happens. They are called adverbs of place. Like “The children are playing downstairs.”
- The words a and an are indefinite articles. They are used with singular nouns. Use a before nouns that begin with a consonant. Use an before nouns that begin with a vowel.
- The word the is called the definite article. Use the before a noun when you are talking to someone who already knows which person or thing you mean.
- A preposition is a word that connects one thing with another, showing how they are related. Some prepositions tell you about position or place. Like “The books fell off the shelf”.
- Some prepositions are used to talk about time. Like “Many shops close on Sundays.”
- A conjunction is a linking word such as and, or, but. Conjunctions are used to connect words or sentences.
- The words before, after, as, when, while, until, since, are also conjunctions. They tell when something happens, so they are called conjunctions of time.
- An interjection is a word that expresses a sudden, strong feeling such as surprise, pain, or pleasure.
- An exclamation point (!) is often used after interjections.