Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, as articulated in the second half of the 20th century by Erik Erikson in collaboration with Joan Erikson.

Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development considers the impact of external factors, parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. According to Erikson’s theory, every person must pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over the entire life cycle

The eight stages of development are:

Stage 1: Infancy: Trust vs. Mistrust [Hope]

The first stage of Erik Erikson’s theory centers around the infant’s basic needs being met by the parents and how this interaction leads to trust or mistrust. 

Stage 2: Toddlerhood: Autonomy vs. Shame and Self-Doubt [Will]

As the child gains control over eliminative functions and motor abilities, they begin to explore their surroundings. Parents still provide a strong base of security from which the child can venture out to assert their will. The parents’ patience and encouragement helps foster autonomy in the child.

Stage 3: Preschool Years: Initiative vs. Guilt [Purpose]

At this stage, the child wants to begin and complete their own actions for a purpose. Guilt is a confusing new emotion. They may feel guilty over things that logically should not cause guilt. They may feel guilt when this initiative does not produce desired results.

Stage 4: Early School Years: Industry vs. Inferiority [Competence]

As children grow in independence, they become increasingly aware of themselves as individuals. They begin to compare themselves with others.

Stage 5: Adolescence: Identity vs. Role Confusion [Fidelity]

The famed term “identity crisis” comes from this period of development. During this stage, adolescents’ main goal is to answer the question “Who am I?” They may try different personas to determine which roles fit them best.

Stage 6: Young Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation [Love]

According to Erikson, young adulthood is the period during which many people get married or develop significant relationships. It has been defined as anywhere from 20-24 years to 20-40 years.

Stage 7: Middle Adulthood: Generativity vs. Stagnation [Care]

The focus of this stage is to contribute to society and the next generation. Adults in this stage are often at the height of their careers. Many people are raising children.

Stage 8: Late Adulthood: Ego Integrity vs. Despair [Wisdom]

During this phase, older adults reflect on the life they have lived.


QuestionWhat does the epigenetic principle of development given by Erik Erikson emphasize?
AnswersA) Environment plays crucial role in personality development

B) Development of personality occurs in a predetermined order

C) There is conflict between the id and super ego during personality development

D) Personality development is individualistic in nature
B) Development of personality occurs in a predetermined order
QuestionThe last stage of development according to Erikson speaks about?
AnswersA) Ego-integrity versus despair

B) Hope versus loss

C) Intimacy versus isolation

D) Love versus hate
A) Ego-integrity versus despair
QuestionThe central theme of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial stages was the development of:
AnswersA) Personality

B) Psychosocial conflict 

C) Social Status

D) Ego Identity 
B) Psychosocial conflict 
QuestionAccording to Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development, the stage in which a child needs to learn important academic skills and compare favorably with peers in school to achieve competence is the ____ stage.
AnswersA) Industry vs. Inferiority

B) Initiative vs. Guilt

C) Trust vs. Mistrust

D) Identity vs. Role Confusion  
A) Industry vs. Inferiority  
Question Which of these is NOT one of the “life stage virtues” of development according to Erik Erikson?
AnswersA) Hope

B) Love

C) Honesty

D) Wisdom
C) Honesty  
Question _________ vs. __________ is the conflict faced during middle adulthood.
AnswersA) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

B) Identity vs. Role Confusion

C) Integrity vs. Despair

D) Generativity vs. Stagnation
D) Generativity vs. Stagnation  
QuestionThe stage that occurs between birth and one year of age is concerned with:
AnswersA) Trust vs. Mistrust

B) Industry vs. Inferiority 

C) Initiative vs. Guilt

D) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
A) Trust vs. Mistrust  
QuestionA 40-year-old woman quits her high-paying IT job to focus on her children and become a school counselor. What stage would Erikson consider this to be:
AnswersA) Generativity vs. Stagnation

B) Ego Integrity vs. Despair

C) Idenitity vs. Role Confusion

D) Industry vs. Inferiority
A) Generativity vs. Stagnation  
QuestionA teacher during her teaching helps students to set goals for themselves regarding learning and provides them feedback regarding their progress. This teacher as per Erik Erikson’s theory is helping students overcome which crisis?
AnswersA) Trust vs mistrust

B) Ego Integrity vs. Despair

C) Idenitity vs. Role Confusion

D) Industry vs. Inferiority
D) Industry vs. Inferiority  

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