The term personality has been derived from the Latin word persona which means a mask. It was used by actors to hide themselves and to act without being noticed by the audience.
The following are just a few of the definitions that have been put forth by some different psychologists:
- “That which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation.” -Raymond B. Cattell, 1950
- “The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought.” -Gordon W. Allport, 1961
- “The distinctive patterns of behavior (including thoughts and well as ‘affects,’ that is, feelings, and emotions and actions) that characterize each individual enduringly.” -Walter Mischel, 1999
There are a number of theories about how personality develops. Different schools of thought in psychology influence many of these theories. Some of these major perspectives on personality include:
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
- Sigmund Freud ‘s psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego.
- According to Freud, personality develops during childhood and is critically shaped through a series of five psychosexual stages ( oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital ), which he called his psychosexual theory of development.
- Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect.
Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson was an ego psychologist who developed one of the most popular and influential theories of development. Erikson’s theory centered on psychosocial development rather than psychosexual development. The stages that make up his theory are as follows:
Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority Stage 5 - Identity vs. Confusion Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation Stage 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation Stage 8 - Integrity vs. Despair
A personality test is a method of assessing human personality constructs.
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire with the purpose of indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): The MMPI Test is a psychological exam that takes a look at your personality traits as well as your psychopathology to determine if you have mental health issues.
16 Personality Factor (16 PF): Cattell developed an assessment based on these 16 personality factors. The test is known as the 16 PF Personality Questionnaire and is still frequently used today, especially in career counseling, marital counseling, and in business for employee testing and selection.
Rorschach inkblot test: The Rorschach test is a psychological test in which subjects’ perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): Thematic apperception test (TAT) is a projective psychological test developed during the 1930s by Henry A. Murray and Christiana D. Morgan at Harvard University.
See, if you can answer below questions after reading this article:
|Question|| Thematic Apperception Test (T.A.T) was developed by?|
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [UPTET-2016-02]
|Options||A) Symond |
|Question|| Which theory of personality was developed by Sigmund Freud? |
[Child Development and Pedagogy] [UPTET-2018-12]
|Options||A) Psychoanalytic |