NoteThis article covers “Principles of Language Teaching” for CTET, State TETs and other teaching recruitment exams.

All language learning involves the processes of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Language learning is based on following well-defined principles.

Language Patterns as Habits
Language learning is a habit formation process. It is a process during which various language habits are formed. Therefore, listening, speaking, reading and writing habits are to be formed consciously and unconsciously.

Oral Approach
A child learns to speak his mother tongue before reading or writing it. This principle should be adopted in learning and teaching a second or a foreign language.

Practice and Drill
Language learning is a habit-forming process. For this purpose sufficient practice and drill is needed.

Natural Order of Learning
Listening-Speaking-Reading-Writing (LSRW) is the natural order of learning a language. In this order, a child learns his or her mother tongue without any formal instruction. So this natural order of learning should be considered while teaching English.

Multi-Skill Approach
All the four language skills are to be given their due importance when learning or teaching them. No skill should be overemphasized or neglected.

Selection and Gradation
One should proceed from simple to difficult in language learning; therefore, vocabulary and structures of language should be selected and graded as per their frequency, teachability and difficulty level.

Situational Approach
The English language should be taught in situations which is the natural way in which a child learns his mother tongue.

Imitation
The child learns his mother tongue by imitation. The English teacher must provide a good model of speech before the learners. Audio-visual aids should be used.

Motivation
Motivation plays an important role in learning a language. Thus, learners should be motivated.

Accuracy
The English teacher should insist on accuracy in all aspects of language learning. So learners follow their teachers and consider them as a role model.

Purpose
Purpose of language learning should be decided in the beginning. So it becomes a simple affair to design a course suitable for the purpose.

Interest
The teacher should generate a great deal of energy and interest among learners so they will pay attention to learning a language.

Co-relation
If teaching-learning of English is co-related with real life then learner will realize the need of language learning and will take interest in it.

See, if you can answer below questions after reading this article:

Question A speaking activity can be made more purposeful by :
[CTET-2014-02]
OptionsA) insisting on correct structure and pronunciation
B) interrupting the activity with some writing/reading
C) motivating students to complete a task at the end
D) providing a specific list of vocabulary to use
C) motivating students to complete a task at the end
Question While teaching language to learners, a teacher should teach: –
[CTET-2016-09]
OptionsA) in an integrated manner
B) by giving instructions
C) through imitation
d) in isolation
A) in an integrated manner
QuestionWhich one of the following is the most important prerequisite for language learning?
[ CTET-2016-02]
OptionsA) Children’s motivation to learn the language
B) List of aims and objectives of the language to be learnt
C) Providing a good textbook to children to learn the language
D) Using structural-situatonal approach while teaching
A) Children’s motivation to learn the language

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